Determination of the pH of salt extract
The selected samples pH salt extracts are being identified. Integral indicator of changes in physical and chemical properties of soils under the influence of acid rain can be considered a reduction in the pH of the aqueous slurry of soil and salt, the first of which describes the date, and the second - the potential acidity of soil. The most significant process of soil acidification is appeared in the surface horizons, but in certain situations. The downward trend in pH can be traced to a depth of several tens of centimeters. Under the influence of acid rain, increase in both forms of the potential acidity as exchange and hydrolysis is happening, but it can appear in varying degrees.
Evaluation of soil contamination by oil products
Petroleum products are among the most common and dangerous substances in the environment. Some of the fractions contained in the oil are highly toxic, and their toxicity increases with increasing concentration of these fractions with absorption or dissolving them in an aqueous system (groundwater). Another feature of the oil pollution is the ability to capture and concentrate other contaminants such as heavy metals and pesticides. Included in the oil of low molecular weight aliphatic, naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons are particularly toxic and have, to some degree, a narcotic effect on the human body and animals, affecting the cardiovascular and nervous systems. The main source of petroleum products in the soil in the conditions of the city is motor vehicle emissions (in the absence of specific pollution), as well as hydrocarbons into the soil with rain and snowmelt runoff.
Evaluation of soil contamination of 3,4-benzo (a) pyrene.
Vehicles, aircraft, rail transportation, coke and oil refineries, oil fields contribute to soil contamination by carcinogens, among which are especially dangerous polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Soils play a role of a "depot" where PAH fall as a result of anthropogenic emissions and natural revenue. Their presence in the soils can play the role of an indicator, reflecting the presence of a source of pollution.
Evaluation of soil contamination with heavy metals
The sources of pollution with heavy metals are mainly industrial emissions. Heavy metals tend to accumulate in the soil profile, especially in the upper humus horizons. The danger of soil contamination from man-made metal aerosol air exist for all types of soils and in all parts of city with the only difference that the soil, located close to sources of pollution, will contain more pollutants. For the environmental impacts of soil contamination with heavy metals acquire the essential values of concentrations and speciation of heavy metals in the soil solution.
Ecological-geochemical assessment of soils
Assessing the level of chemical contamination of soils as an indicator of the adverse effects on human health is carried out on indicators developed with conjugate geochemical and hygienic studies of the urban environment with the existing sources of pollution. This indicator is a summary measure of chemical pollution (Zc). Category contamination of soils is considered "acceptable" if the value of Zc less than 16, if the value of Zc in the range of 16-32, then the category of pollution of soil and ground - "moderately hazardous" 32-128 - category of pollution - "dangerous" if more than 128 - the category of pollution - an "extremely dangerous."